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15:30

The Soviet Union's Motives for Brokering Peace with Iraq

Fred Halliday, professor of International Relations at the London School of Economics, discusses some possible motives for the Soviet Union's attempt to find an end to the Gulf War -- including how these negotiations could affect relations with the United States. He'll also give us a primer on the history of the Soviet Union's relations with Iraq.

Interview
22:37

Soviet Policies Place a Strain on U.S. Relations

Journalist Robert Cullen covers the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. He joins Fresh Air to talk about recent crackdowns on rights in the U.S.S.R. and advances in the Baltic Republics. Cullen is currently working on a book about the Soviet empire.

Interview
24:11

Soviet Reforms and "The New Russians"

Journalist Hedrick Smith was a reporter for the New York Times for 26 years. He reported from the Soviet Union from 1971-1974. His new book, The New Russians, considers the changing political, economic and social cultures of the country under Mikhail Gorbachev's liberalizing reforms.

Interview
24:35

A Definitive Report on the Chernobyl Accident

Scientist Zhores Mevedvev was the first scientist in the West to determine that the Soviet Union suffered a nuclear accident in 1957, three decades before Chernobyl. He has a new book called "The Legacy of Chernobyl," about the latter disaster -- which contributed to the Soviet Union's glasnost and perestroika reforms. Medvedev's father was exiled from Russia; Medvedev himself faced persecution for his research and activism.

Interview
24:17

John Noble Wilford Says "Mars Beckons"

The Pulitzer Prize-winning writer joins Fresh Air to talk about the scientific and cultural history of the Red Planet. He advocates for robotic and human exploration of Mars -- an endeavor that would lead to greater technological innovations and international cooperation.

Interview
10:50

Krushchev's Son on His Father's Life

Historian William Taubman edited and translated a biography of the last years of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, as told by Nikita's son, Sergei. The book, titled Khrushchev on Khrushchev, gives new insights into the elder Khrushchev's fall from power after repudiating Stalinism, and his final days as a virtual pariah in the Soviet Union.

Interview
03:32

A Russian Scientist Refused to Work in Silence

Book critic John Leonard reviews the memoirs of Andrei Sakharav, a Russian scientist and political dissident who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975. Leonard says the book is more than autobiography -- it's a guide for global citizenship.

Review
22:16

The History and Future of Gorbachev.

Veteran journalist Dusko Doder. Doder and co-author Louise Branson have just written a comprehensive biography of Mikhail Gorbachev, titled, "Gorbachev: Heretic In the Kremlin." It's published by Viking. Dusko Doder is the former Moscow Bureau chief for the Washington Post. Branson covered the Soviet Union for the Sunday Times of London.

Interview
22:14

The Independence of Lithuania and Romania.

Journalist Robert Cullen. He's a former Moscow correspondent for Newsweek, and he writes regularly on Eastern Europe for The Atlantic and the New Yorker. An eyewitness to the fall of the Ceaucescu regime in Romania, Cullen discusses with Terry the difficulties that country faces in setting up a democracy after so many years under a dictatorship.

Interview
11:19

Creating Art in the Soviet Union and New York.

Soviet-born artists Vitaly Komar and Aleksandr Melamid. The pair are the creators of two huge, multi-paneled works called "Yalta 1945" and "Winter in Moscow 1977." Both works are being shown in America for the first time at the Brooklyn Museum. "Yalta 1945" is made of 31 4x4 foot panels depicting Lenin and the four leaders from the Yalta Conference. "Winter in Moscow 1977" uses 26 panels to show Komar and Melamid's home town shortly before they fled to the West. (The exhibit runs until June 4th).

22:11

Life for Soviet Women in Glasnost.

Journalist and essayist Francine Du Plessix Gray. In her latest book, "Soviet Women: Walking the Tightrope," Gray documents the lives and attitudes of contemporary Soviet women in the era of glasnost. They talk about everything from birth control to Stalin to the constant struggle to balance the demands of work and family in their lives. ("Soviet Women" is published by Doubleday.)

22:32

Valdimir Pozner Reacts to Being Called "Moscow's Mouthpiece."

Soviet commentator Vladimir Pozner (poez-ner, not pahs-ner). Pozner is a fixture on American talk shows...an intelligent, affable, understandable interpreter of Soviet events and policies. Pozner was born in France, grew up in Brooklyn, and moved to the Soviet Union at age 19. In his new book, "Parting With Illusions," Pozner looks back on his life, talks about the Soviet Union under leaders from Stalin to Gorbechev, and discusses the recent "ending" of the cold war. (The book's published by the Atlantic Monthly Press).

Interview
22:40

Paul Nitze Discusses His Career as a Presidential Advisor.

Veteran arms negotiator and diplomat Paul Nitze. Nitze has spent nearly 50 years at the highest levels of this country's foreign policy, and advised every President from F. D. R. to George Bush. He helped form the Marshall Plan after World War Two, dealt with the Berlin War and Cuban Missile crises, and engaged in the famous "walk in the woods," during the U-S/Soviet INF treaty negotiations. Nitze has just written a memoir of his public life, called "From Hiroshima to Glasnost."

Interview
11:38

Martin Cruz Smith Discusses Writing about the Soviet Union.

Writer Martin Cruz Smith. His latest novel, Polar Star, is his sequel to his 1981 best-seller Gorky Park. In Polar Star, Cruz Smith revives Arkady Renko, the intrepid police investigator hero of Gorky Park. Smith is also the author of Stallion Gate, a novel about the making of the atomic bomb. (Interview with Sedge Thomson)

Interview
27:18

Spy Novelist John Le Carre

Le Carre is the pseudonym of writer David Cromwell, who used to be a spy himself. His newest novel, The Russia House, considers the glasnost reforms of the Soviet Union's Gorbachev administration. Some of Le Carre's past novels include The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, The Little Drummer Girl, and Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy.

Interview

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