Robert Townsend is the author of the 1970 bestseller "Up the Organization," and his newly revised edition of the book is called "Further Up the Organization: How to Stop Management from Stifling People and Strangling Productivity." Townsend contends that most workers are "docile, bored, and dull," and advocates a type of "non-violent guerrilla warfare," in which workers dismantle all but those aspects of organizations that serve them. Townsend is known for his tenure at Avis and also worked at Twentieth Century Fox and American Express.
In 2008, GM closed its manufacturing plant in Dayton, Ohio, sending the community into a tailspin. Workers who had been unionized at GM struggled to find jobs that paid close to the wages the plant had paid.